Why Science? - QuinaPro

Why Science?

Non-psychoactive Cannabidiol(CBD) and TERPENES have been studied extensively for over 3 decades in animal and human models. We encourage you to do your own research about the many medical benefits of CBD and Terpenes that have been done.

RESEARCH LINKS:

General
Safety and side effects of cannabidiol
CBD: From an inactive cannabinoid to a drug with wide spectrum of action
CBD as an emergent therapeutic strategy for lessening the impact of inflammation on oxidative stress
CBD: An overview of some pharmacological aspects
CBD: An overview of some chemical and pharmacological aspects
The endocannabinoid system as an emerging target of pharmacotherapy
Therapeutic potential of cannabinoid-based drugs
Targeting the endocannabinoid system with cannabinoid receptor agonists
Cannabis-based medicines–GW pharmaceuticals
The therapeutic potential of cannabis and cannabinoids
Emerging strategies for exploiting cannabinoid receptor agonists as medicines
Therapeutic potential of cannabinoid-based drugs
Cannabinoids in clinical practice
Cannabinoids
Pharmacology of cannabinoids
Combined cannabinoid therapy via an oromucosal spray
Non-psychotropic plant cannabinoids
Opposite effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on human brain function and psychopathology
Care and feeding of the endocannabinoid system
Understanding the molecular aspects of THC and CBD as antioxidants 
A tale of two cannabinoids
Clinical Studies With Cannabis and Cannabinoids, 2005-2009
An Update on Safety and Side Effects of CBD: A Review of Clinical Data and Relevant Animal Studies
Explorative Placebo-Controlled Double-Blind Intervention Study with Low Doses of InhaledTHC and CBD Reveals No Effect on Sweet Taste Intensity Perception and Liking in Humans
A Conversion of Oral Cannabidiol to Delta9-THC Seems Not to Occur in Humans
Clinical and Pre-Clinical Evidence for Functional Interactions of CBD & THC
CBD, a novel inverse agonist for GPR12

Acne
The safety and efficacy of 3% Cannabis seeds extract cream for reduction of human cheek skin sebum and erythema content
CBD as a Treatment for Acne?
CBD exerts sebostatic and antiinflammatory effects on human sebocytes
The endocannabinoid system of the skin in health and disease
Endocannabinoids enhance lipid synthesis and apoptosis of human sebocytes via cannabinoid receptor-2-mediated signaling
Endocannabinoid signaling and epidermal differentiation
Differential effectiveness of selected non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids on human sebocyte functions

ADD and ADHD
Searching for a Neurobiological Basis for Self-Medication Theory in ADHD Comorbid With Substance Use Disorders
CBD and clozapine reverse MK-801-induced deficits in social interaction and hyperactivity in Sprague-Dawley rats
Subtypes of ADHD and cannabis use
Childhood and current ADHD symptom dimensions are associated with more severe cannabis outcomes in college students
Oral delta 9-THC improved refractory Gilles de la Tourette syndrome in an adolescent by increasing intracortical inhibition
Fitness to drive in spite (because) of THC
ADHD Is Highly Prevalent in Patients Seeking Treatment for Cannabis Use Disorders
A Qualitative Analysis of Online Forum Discussions on Cannabis Use and ADHD
Cannabinoids in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a randomised-controlled trial

Addiction
CBD as an Intervention for Addictive Behaviors
CBD reduces cigarette consumption in tobacco smokers
Inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase enzyme reduces nicotine withdrawal
CBD inhibits the reward-facilitating effect of morphine
Cannabidiol, a nonpsychotropic component of cannabis, inhibits cue-induced heroin seeking and normalizes discrete mesolimbic neuronal disturbances
Differential effect of cannabinol and cannabidiol on THC-induced responses during abstinence in morphine-dependent rats
Impact of Cannabis Use during Stabilization on Methadone Maintenance Treatment
Medical cannabis laws and opioid analgesic overdose mortality in the United States, 1999-2010
Dysregulation of cannabinoid CB1 receptor and associated signaling networks in brains of cocaine addicts and cocaine-treated rodents
Comparison of CBD, antioxidants, and diuretics in reversing binge ethanol-induced neurotoxicity
Transdermal delivery of CBD attenuates binge alcohol-induced neurodegeneration in a rodent model of an alcohol use disorder
CBD for the treatment of cannabis withdrawal syndrome
Cannabis use disorders are comparatively prevalent among nonwhite racial/ethnic groups and adolescents
CBD Counteracts Amphetamine-Induced Neuronal and Behavioral Sensitization of the Mesolimbic Dopamine Pathway
CBD regulation of emotion and emotional memory processing: relevance for treating anxiety-related and substance abuse disorders
Early Phase in the Development of CBD as a Treatment for Addiction: Opioid Relapse Takes Initial Center Stage
Epigenetic mechanisms associated with addiction-related behavioural effects of nicotine and/or cocaine: implication of the endocannabinoid system
Effects of Cannabidiol on Morphine Conditioned Place Preference in Mice

AIDS
CBD inhibits growth and induces programmed cell death in kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus-infected endothelium

ALS
Cannabis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Medical Cannabis Helps ALS Patient Outlive her Own Doctor
Self-medication with cannabidiol oil in a patient with primary lateral sclerosis
Neurological aspects of medical use of CBD

Alzheimer’s Disease
Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Agitation and Aggression in Alzheimer’s Disease
The therapeutic potential of the endocannabinoid system for Alzheimer’s disease
Endocannabinoid signalling in Alzheimer’s disease
A molecular link between the active component of marijuana and Alzheimer’s disease pathology
Neuroprotective effect of CBD… on beta-amyloid-induced toxicity in PC12 cells
The Potential Therapeutic Effects of THC on Alzheimer’s Disease
The Role of Endocannabinoid Signaling in the Molecular Mechanisms of Neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s Disease 
Cannabinoids for the treatment of dementia
CBD in vivo blunts beta-amyloid induced neuroinflammation by suppressing IL-1beta and iNOS expression 
CBD: A promising drug for neurodegenerative disorders?
Cannabinoid receptor 1 deficiency in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease leads to enhanced cognitive impairment despite of a reduction in amyloid deposition
The role of the endocannabinoid system in Alzheimer’s disease
The role of phytochemicals in the treatment and prevention of dementia
Cannabinoids for the treatment of dementia
Cannabidiol Promotes Amyloid Precursor Protein Ubiquitination and Reduction of Beta Amyloid Expression in SHSY5YAPP+ Cells Through PPARγ Involvement
Cannabinoids for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: moving toward the clinic
Can Marijuana Prevent Alzheimer’s?
Safety and Efficacy of Medical Cannabis Oil for Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia
Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Agitation and Aggression in Alzheimer’s Disease
Natural Phytochemicals in the Treatment and Prevention of Dementia: An Overview
Delineating the Efficacy of a Cannabis-Based Medicine at Advanced Stages of Dementia in a Murine Model
CBD Modulates the Expression of Alzheimer’s Disease-Related Genes in Mesenchymal Stem Cells
In vivo Evidence for Therapeutic Properties of CBD for Alzheimer’s Disease
Neurological aspects of medical use of CBD

Anorexia
Leptin, ghrelin, and endocannabinoids: Potential therapeutic targets in anorexia nervosa
The role of the endocannabinoid system in eating disorders: Neurochemical and behavioural preclinical evidence
Cancer cachexia and cannabinoids

Antibiotic Resistance
Antibacterial cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: A structure-activity study
(PubMed)
Antibacterial activity of delta9-THC and CBD

Anxiety
CBD as an anxiolytic drug
Antidepressant-Like and Anxiolytic-Like Effects of Cannabidiol: A Chemical Compound of Cannabis Sativa
CBD reduces the anxiety induced by simulated public speaking in treatment-naпve social phobia patients
Neural basis of anxiolytic effects of CBD in generalized social anxiety disorder
Central anandamide deficiency predicts stress-induced anxiety: behavioral reversal through endocannabinoid augmentation
Effects of CBD on regional cerebral blood flow
The anxiolytic-like effects of cannabidiol injected into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis are mediated by 5-HT1A receptors
The anxiolytic effect of CBD on chronically stressed mice depends on hippocampal neurogenesis: involvement of the endocannabinoid system
Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, part 2
A systematic review of plant-derived natural compounds for anxiety disorders
The Endocannabinoid System and Anxiety
CBD regulation of emotion and emotional memory processing: relevance for treating anxiety-related and substance abuse disorders
Effect of prior foot shock stress and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiolic acid, and cannabidiol on anxiety-like responding in the light-dark emergence test in rats
Effectiveness of Cannabidiol Oil for Pediatric Anxiety and Insomnia as Part of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Report.
CBD Does Not Dampen Responses to Emotional Stimuli in Healthy Adults

Atherosclerosis
The role of the endocannabinoid system in atherosclerosis
Cannabinoid receptors in atherosclerosis
The potential use of cannabidiol in the therapy of metabolic syndrome

Arthritis
Preliminary assessment of the efficacy, tolerability and safety of a cannabis-based medicine (Sativex) in the treatment of pain caused by rheumatoid arthritis
The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis
Involvement of the endocannabinoid system in osteoarthritis pain
The abnormal cannabidiol analogue O-1602 reduces nociception in a rat model of acute arthritis via the putative cannabinoid receptor GPR55
Attenuation of early phase inflammation by cannabidiol prevents pain and nerve damage in rat osteoarthritis

Asthma
The role of cannabinoids in inflammatory modulation of allergic respiratory disorders, inflammatory pain and ischemic stroke
Allergen challenge increases anandamide in bronchoalveolar fluid of patients with allergic asthma
Activation of cannabinoid receptors prevents antigen-induced asthma-like reaction in guinea pigs
Endogenous cannabinoid receptor agonists inhibit neurogenic inflammations in guinea pig airways
Bronchodilator effect of delta1-tetrahydrocannabinol
Evaluation of Serum Cytokines Levels and the Role of CBD Treatment in Animal Model of Asthma  

Autism
Endocannabinoid Signaling in Autism
Mutations found in individuals with autism interfere with endocannabinoid signaling in the brain
Cannabinoid receptor type 2, but not type 1, is up-regulated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of children affected by autistic disorders
A novel approach to the symptomatic treatment of autism
Consequences of cannabinoid and monoaminergic system disruption in a mouse model of autism spectrum disorders
Targeting the endocannabinoid system in the treatment of fragile X syndrome
Deficient adolescent social behavior following early-life inflammation is ameliorated by augmentation of anandamide signaling

Bipolar
Cannabinoids in bipolar affective disorder: A review and discussion of their therapeutic potential
Cannabidiol was ineffective for manic episode of bipolar affective disorder

Cancer

General
CBD as potential anticancer drug
CBD inhibits angiogenesis by multiple mechanisms
The inhibitory effects of CBD on systemic malignant tumors
CBD inhibits cancer cell invasion via upregulation of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1
Marijuana fights cancer and helps manage side effects
In vitro and in vivo efficacy of non-psychoactive cannabidiol in neuroblastoma
The Influence of Biomechanical Properties and Cannabinoids on Tumor Invasion
Antitumorigenic targets of cannabinoids – current status and implications
Cannabinoids – a new weapon against cancer?
CBD, a novel inverse agonist for GPR12

Bladder
TRPV2 activation induces apoptotic cell death in human T24 bladder cancer cells: a potential therapeutic target for bladder cancer

Brain
Cannabidiol enhances the inhibitory effects of delta9-THC on human glioblastoma cell proliferation and survival
Antitumor effects of CBD, a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, on human glioma cell lines
Systematic review of the literature on clinical and experimental trials on the antitumor effects of cannabinoids in gliomas
CBD inhibits human glioma cell migration through a cannabinoid receptor-independent mechanism
Id-1 is a key transcriptional regulator of glioblastoma aggressiveness and a novel therapeutic target
Triggering of the TRPV2 channel by cannabidiol sensitizes glioblastoma cells to cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents
CBD inhibits proliferation and invasion in U87-MG and T98G glioma cells through a multitarget effect
Local delivery of cannabinoid-loaded microparticles inhibits tumor growth in a murine xenograft model of glioblastoma multiforme
Synergistic responses between cannabidiol and DNA-damaging agents on the proliferation and viability of glioblastoma and neural progenitor cells in culture
Cannabis improved survival of patients with aggressive brain cancer in controlled clinical study

Breast
Antitumor activity of plant cannabinoids with emphasis on the effect of cannabidiol on human breast carcinoma
CBD induces programmed cell death in breast cancer cells by coordinating the cross-talk between apoptosis and autophagy
Pathways mediating the effects of CBD on the reduction of breast cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis
CBD as a novel inhibitor of Id-1 gene expression in aggressive breast cancer cells
Cannabidiolic acid, a major cannabinoid in fiber-type cannabis, is an inhibitor of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell migration
CBD-A mediated selective down-regulation of c-fos in highly aggressive breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells

Colon
Chemopreventive effect of the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid cannabidiol on experimental colon cancer
Inhibition of colon carcinogenesis by a standardized Cannabis sativa extract with high content of CBD
Induction of apoptosis by cannabinoids in prostate and colon cancer cells is phosphatase dependent

Endocrine
Endocannabinoids in endocrine and related tumours
A comparative study on CBD-induced apoptosis in murine thymocytes and EL-4 thymoma cells

Kaposi Sarcoma
CBD inhibits growth and induces programmed cell death in kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus-infected endothelium

Leukemia
CBD-induced apoptosis in human leukemia cells: A novel role of cannabidiol in the regulation of p22phox and Nox4 expression
CBD-Induced Apoptosis in Human Leukemia Cells
Cannabidiol Reduces Leukemic Cell Size – But Is It Important?

Lung
CBD inhibits lung cancer cell invasion and metastasis via intercellular adhesion molecule-1C
COX-2 and PPAR-γ confer cannabidiol-induced apoptosis of human lung cancer cells
Decrease of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 may contribute to the anti-invasive action of CBD on human lung cancer cells
Media ignored expert’s shocking findings that marijuana helps prevent lung cancer

Pain
Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of THC:CBD extract and THC extract in patients with intractable cancer-related pain
Nabiximols for opioid-treated cancer patients with poorly-controlled chronic pain: a randomized, placebo-controlled, graded-dose trial
Marijuana extract helps prevent chemo pain

Prostate
Towards the use of non-psychoactive cannabinoids for prostate cancer
In Vitro Anticancer Activity of Plant-Derived Cannabidiol on Prostate Cancer Cell Lines
Induction of apoptosis by cannabinoids in prostate and colon cancer cells is phosphatase dependent

Skin
Anticancer activity of anandamide in human cutaneous melanoma cells

Digestive Issues

Colitis and Crohn’s
CBD in inflammatory bowel diseases: a brief overview
Cannabis finds its way into treatment of Crohn’s disease
CBD reduces intestinal inflammation through the control of neuroimmune axis
Cannabidiol, a safe and non-psychotropic ingredient of the marijuana plant Cannabis sativa, is protective in a murine model of colitis
The effects of Delta-tetrahydrocannabinol and CBD alone and in combination on damage, inflammation and in vitro motility disturbances in rat colitis
Topical and systemic cannabidiol improves trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid colitis in mice
Cannabinoids and the gut: New developments and emerging concepts
Endocannabinoids and the gastrointestinal tract
Cannabinoids and gastrointestinal motility: Animal and human studies
Hergenrather presents study of Crohn’s patients as a template for clinical research on Cannabis
Manipulation of the Endocannabinoid System in Colitis: A Comprehensive Review
Low-Dose Cannabidiol Is Safe but Not Effective in the Treatment for Crohn’s Disease, a Randomized Controlled Trial.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Cannabidiol in inflammatory bowel diseases: A brief overview
CBD reduces intestinal inflammation through the control of neuroimmune axis
Clinical endocannabinoid deficiency (CECD): Can this concept explain therapeutic benefits of cannabis in migraine, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome and other treatment-resistant conditions?
Cannabinoid actions at TRPV channels: Effects on TRPV3 and TRPV4 and their potential relevance to gastrointestinal inflammation
Therapeutic potential of cannabinoid-based drugs
Beneficial effect of the non-psychotropic plant cannabinoid cannabigerol on experimental inflammatory bowel disease (Biochemical Pharmacology)
CBD and the gut: New developments and emerging concepts
Endocannabinoids and the gastrointestinal tract
CBD and gastrointestinal motility
Getting into the weed: the role of the endocannabinoid system in the brain-gut axis

Depression
Endocannabinoid system dysfunction in mood and related disorders
Antidepressant-Like and Anxiolytic-Like Effects of CBD
The endocannabinoid system and the treatment of mood and anxiety disorders
Endocannabinoid signaling in the etiology and treatment of major depressive illness
Antidepressant-like effects of cannabidiol in mice: Possible involvement of 5-HT1A receptors
Putative role of endocannabinoid signaling in the etiology of depression and actions of antidepressants
Antidepressant-like effect of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa
Circulating endocannabinoids and N-acyl ethanolamines are differentially regulated in major depression and following exposure to social stress
Serum contents of endocannabinoids are correlated with blood pressure in depressed women
The therapeutic potential of the endocannabinoid system for the development of a novel class of antidepressants
Antidepressants and Changes in Concentration of Endocannabinoids and N-Acylethanolamines in Rat Brain Structures
Cannabidiol induces rapid-acting antidepressant-like effects and enhances cortical 5-HT/glutamate neurotransmission: role of 5-HT1A receptors
Prohedonic Effect of CBD in a Rat Model of Depression
Antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like effects of CBD

Diabetes
The impact of marijuana use on glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance among US adults
CBD attenuates cardiac dysfunction, oxidative stress, fibrosis, and inflammatory and cell death signaling pathways in diabetic cardiomyopathy
CBD lowers incidence of diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice
Neuroprotective and blood-retinal barrier-preserving effects of CBD in experimental diabetesCannabidiol arrests onset of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice
Diabetic retinopathy: Role of inflammation and potential therapies for anti-inflammation
Cannabinoids alter endothelial function in the Zucker rat model of type 2 diabetes
The endocannabinoid system in obesity and type 2 diabetes
Cannabinoids and endocannabinoids in metabolic disorders with focus on diabetes
The endocannabinoid system and plant-derived cannabinoids in diabetes and diabetic complications
Cannabinoid-mediated modulation of neuropathic pain and microglial accumulation in a model of murine type I diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain
Biochemical and immunohistochemical changes in delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-treated type 2 diabetic rats
Efficacy and Safety of CBD and THC-V on Glycemic and Lipid Parameters in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

Endocrine Disorders
Endocannabinoid system participates in neuroendocrine control of homeostasis
The emerging role of the endocannabinoid system in endocrine regulation and energy balance
Endocannabinoids in endocrine and related tumours
Role of the endocannabinoid system in food intake, energy homeostasis and regulation of the endocrine pancreas
The role of the endocannabinoid system in the neuroendocrine regulation of energy balance

Epilepsy and Seizures
CBD for children with Dravet’s and intractable seizures
(Video)
Report of a parent survey of CBD-enriched cannabis use in pediatric treatment-resistant epilepsy
Medicinal marijuana stops seizures, brings hope to a little girl
Cannabinoids for epilepsy
Cannabis, CBD, and epilepsy – From receptors to clinical response 
The non-psychotropic plant cannabinoids, cannabidivarin (CBDV) and cannabidiol (CBD), activate and desensitize transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels in vitro: potential for the treatment of neuronal hyperexcitability 
Chronic administration of CBD to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients
Endocannabinoid system protects against cryptogenic seizures
Seizing an opportunity for the endocannabinoid system
Cannabidiol: promise and pitfalls
Cannabidiol: Pharmacology and potential therapeutic role in epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders
Report of a parent survey of cannabidiol-enriched cannabis use in pediatrictreatment-resistant epilepsy
From the Editors: Cannabidiol and medical marijuana for the treatment of epilepsy
Cannabidivarin (CBDV) suppressespentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-inducedincreases in epilepsy-related gene expression
CBD exerts anti-convulsant effects in animal models of temporal lobe and partial seizures
Cannabidiol displays antiepileptiform and antiseizure properties in vitro and in vivo
Hypnotic and antiepileptic effects of CBD
The cannabinoids as potential antiepileptics
Cannabidiol–antiepileptic drug comparisons and interactions in experimentally induced seizures in rats
CBD Post-Treatment Alleviates Rat Epileptic-Related Behaviors
Pharmacology of cannabinoids in the treatment of epilepsy
Therapeutic effects of cannabinoids in animal models of seizures, epilepsy, epileptogenesis, and epilepsy-related neuroprotection
Report from a Survey of Parents Regarding the Use of Cannabidiol in Mexican Children with Refractory Epilepsy.
Protective Effects of Cannabidiol against Seizures and Neuronal Death in a Rat Model of Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
CBD Treatment for Refractory Seizures in Sturge-Weber Syndrome

Could Cannabidiol be a Treatment Option for Intractable Childhood and Adolescent Epilepsy?

Fibromyalgia
Clinical endocannabinoid deficiency (CECD): Can this concept explain therapeutic benefits of cannabis in migraine, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome and other treatment-resistant conditions?
Cannabis use in patients with fibromyalgia
Cannabinoids for fibromyalgia

Glaucoma
Neuroprotective effect of (-)Delta9-THC and CBD in N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced retinal neurotoxicity
Effect of sublingual application of cannabinoids on intraocular pressure

Heart Disease
CBD as an anti-arrhythmic, the role of the CB1 receptors
Is the cardiovascular system a therapeutic target for CBD?
Acute administration of CBD in vivo suppresses ischaemia-induced cardiac arrhythmias and reduces infarct size when given at reperfusion
CBD attenuates cardiac dysfunction, oxidative stress, fibrosis, and inflammatory and cell death signaling pathways in diabetic cardiomyopathy
The Effect of CBD on Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Ventricular Arrhythmias
CBD protects against myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury
Endocannabinoids acting at cannabinoid-1 receptors regulate cardiovascular function in hypertension
Oleamide: A fatty acid amide signaling molecule in the cardiovascular system?
Cannabidiol Protects against Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiomyopathy by Modulating Mitochondrial Function and Biogenesis

Huntington’s Disease
Neuroprotective effects of phytocannabinoid-based medicines in experimental models of Huntington’s disease
Cannabinoids: Novel medicines for the treatment of Huntington’s disease
Sativex-like combination of phytocannabinoids is neuroprotective in malonate-lesioned rats, an inflammatory model of Huntington’s disease: role of CB(1) and CB(2) receptors
Controlled clinical trial of cannabidiol in Huntington’s disease
Prospects for cannabinoid therapies in basal ganglia disorders
Neuroprotective Properties of Cannabigerol in Huntington’s Disease: Studies in R6/2 Mice and 3-Nitropropionate-lesioned Mice
Effects of a Sativex-Like Combination of Phytocannabinoids on Disease Progression in R6/2 Mice, an Experimental Model of Huntington’s Disease
Neurological aspects of medical use of CBD

Inflammation
Cannabidiol as an emergent therapeutic strategy for lessening the impact of inflammation on oxidative stress
The endocannabinoid system: an emerging key player in inflammation
Anti-inflammatory role of cannabidiol and O-1602 in cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice
Cannabinoids, endocannabinoids, and related analogs in inflammation
Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic plant-derived cannabinoid, decreases inflammation in a murine model of acute lung injury: role for the adenosine A(2A) receptor
Cannabinoids suppress inflammatory and neuropathic pain by targeting α3 glycine receptors
Cannabidiol reduces intestinal inflammation through the control of neuroimmune axis
Diabetic retinopathy: Role of inflammation and potential therapies for anti-inflammation
Cannabidiol reduces Aβ-induced neuroinflammation and promotes hippocampal neurogenesis through PPARγ involvement
Cannabidiol attenuates high glucose-induced endothelial cell inflammatory response and barrier disruption
Vanilloid TRPV1 receptor mediates the antihyperalgesic effect of the nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, cannabidiol, in a rat model of acute inflammation
Cannabidiol attenuates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by decreasing oxidative/nitrosative stress, inflammation, and cell death
Cannabinoids in clinical practice
Pure THC-V inhibits nitrite production in murine peritoneal macrophages
Cannabinoids, inflammation, and fibrosis
Amyloid proteotoxicity initiates an inflammatory response blocked by cannabinoids
Endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol protects inflammatory insults from sulfur dioxide inhalation via cannabinoid receptors in the brain
Protective effect of CBD on hydrogen peroxide‑induced apoptosis, inflammation and oxidative stress in nucleus pulposus cells
Mechanisms of action of CBD in adoptively transferred experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Cannabidiol in inflammatory bowel diseases: A brief overview
CBD reduces intestinal inflammation through the control of neuroimmune axis
Clinical endocannabinoid deficiency (CECD): Can this concept explain therapeutic benefits of cannabis in migraine, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome and other treatment-resistant conditions?
Cannabinoid actions at TRPV channels: Effects on TRPV3 and TRPV4 and their potential relevance to gastrointestinal inflammation
Therapeutic potential of cannabinoid-based drugs
Beneficial effect of the non-psychotropic plant cannabinoid cannabigerol on experimental inflammatory bowel disease (Biochemical Pharmacology)
CBD and the gut: New developments and emerging concepts
Endocannabinoids and the gastrointestinal tract
CBD and gastrointestinal motility
Getting into the weed: the role of the endocannabinoid system in the brain-gut axis
Cannabinoids and GI Disorders: Endogenous and Exogenous

Kidney Disease
CBD attenuates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by decreasing oxidative/nitrosative stress, inflammation, and cell death

Liver Disease
The endocannabinoid system and liver diseases
Cannabidiol protects against hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury by attenuating inflammatory signaling and response, oxidative/nitrative stress, and cell death
Cannabidiol causes activated hepatic stellate cell death through a mechanism of endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis
Therapeutic potential of cannabidiol against ischemia/reperfusion liver injury in rats
Role of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in amelioration of experimental autoimmune hepatitis following activation of TRPV1 receptors by cannabidiol
Cannabidiol improves brain and liver function in a fulminant hepatic failure-induced model of hepatic encephalopathy in mice
Cannabidiol ameliorates cognitive and motor impairments in mice with bile duct ligation
Potential of CBD for the Treatment of Viral Hepatitis

Metabolic Syndrome
The impact of marijuana use on glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance among US adults
The potential use of cannabidiol in the therapy of metabolic syndrome
Cannabinoids and endocannabinoids in metabolic disorders with focus on diabetes

Migraine
Clinical endocannabinoid deficiency (CECD): Can this concept explain therapeutic benefits of cannabis in migraine, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome and other treatment-resistant conditions?
Effects of anandamide in migraine: data from an animal model
Cannabinoids and hallucinogens for headache
The endocannabinoid system and migraine
Variations in the cannabinoid receptor 1 gene predispose to migraine
Variations in the cannabinoid receptor 1 gene predispose to migraine
Cannabinoids suitable for migraine prevention

Mood Disorders
Multiple mechanisms involved in the large-spectrum therapeutic potential of cannabidiol in psychiatric disorders
The endocannabinoid system & the treatment of mood and anxiety disorders
The endocannabinoid system & psychiatric disorders
The endocannabinoid system in the regulation of emotions throughout lifespan: A discussion on therapeutic perspectives
Endocannabinoid system dysfunction in mood and related disorders
Effects of CBD on regional cerebral blood flow
Cannabidiol, neuroprotection and neuropsychiatric disorders
Therapeutic Potential of Cannabinoids in Psychosis
Beyond the CB1 Receptor: Is Cannabidiol the Answer for Disorders of Motivation?

Motion Sickness
Motion sickness, stress and the endocannabinoid system
Dexamethasone alleviates motion sickness in rats in part by enhancing the endocannabinoid system

Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
Sativex for the management of multiple sclerosis symptoms
THC & CBD oromucosal spray (Sativex®) in the management of spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis
Clinical efficacy and effectiveness of Sativex, a combined cannabinoid medicine, in multiple sclerosis-related spasticity
CBD provides long-lasting protection against the deleterious effects of inflammation in a viral model of multiple sclerosis: A role for A2A receptors
Oromucosal delta9-THC/CBD for neuropathic pain associated with multiple sclerosis
Nabiximols in the treatment of spasticity, pain and urinary symptoms due to multiple sclerosis
Sativex long-term use: An open-label trial in patients with spasticity due to multiple sclerosis
A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of Sativex, in subjects with symptoms of spasticity due to multiple sclerosis
Meta-analysis of cannabis based treatments for neuropathic and multiple sclerosis-related pain
Sativex: Clinical efficacy and tolerability in the treatment of symptoms of multiple sclerosis and neuropathic pain
Evaluating Sativex in Neuropathic Pain Management
CBD counteracted the development of experimental MS
CBD/THC Oromucosal Spray for Multiple Sclerosis-Related Resistant Spasticity in Daily Practice
Neurological aspects of medical use of CBD

Nausea
Regulation of nausea and vomiting by cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system
CBD, a non-psychotropic component of cannabis, attenuates vomiting and nausea-like behaviour via indirect agonism of 5-HT(1A) somatodendritic autoreceptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus
Cannabidiolic acid prevents vomiting in Suncus murinus and nausea-induced behaviour in rats by enhancing 5-HT1A receptor activation
Interaction between non-psychotropic cannabinoids in marihuana: effect of cannabigerol (CBG) on the anti-nausea or anti-emetic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in rats and shrews
Regulation of nausea and vomiting by cannabinoids
CBD: its synthetic dimethylheptyl homolog suppress nausea in an experimental model with rats
Preliminary efficacy and safety of an oromucosal standardized cannabis extract in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting
Effect of combined oral doses of THC & CBDA on acute and anticipatory nausea in rat models

Neurodegeneration
Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders
CBD: A promising drug for neurodegenerative disorders?
CBD for neurodegenerative disorders: Important new clinical applications for this phytocannabinoid?
Transdermal delivery of cannabidiol attenuates binge alcohol-induced neurodegeneration in a rodent model of an alcohol use disorder 
Memory-rescuing effects of cannabidiol in an animal model of cognitive impairment relevant to neurodegenerative disorders
CBD normalizes caspase 3, synaptophysin, and mitochondrial fission protein DNM1L expression levels in rats with brain iron overload: implications for neuroprotection
Cannabidiol, neuroprotection and neuropsychiatric disorders
Short-term effects of CBD after global hypoxia-ischemia in newborn piglets
CBD reduces neuroinflammation and promotes neuroplasticity and functional recovery after brain ischemia
Short-term effects of cannabidiol after global hypoxia-ischemia in newborn piglets
CBD Activates Neuronal Precursor Genes in Human Gingival Mesenchymal Stromal Cells
CBD reduces brain damage and improves functional recovery in a neonatal rat model of arterial ischemic stroke
Interactions between CBD and THC following acute and repeated dosing
CBD attenuates OGD/R-induced damage by enhancing mitochondrial bioenergetics & modulating glucose metabolism
Neurological aspects of medical use of CBD
Modulation of Astrocyte Activity by Cannabidiol, a Nonpsychoactive Cannabinoid

Chronic Pain
Meta-analysis of cannabis based treatments for neuropathic and multiple sclerosis-related pain
Sativex: Clinical efficacy and tolerability in the treatment of symptoms of multiple sclerosis and neuropathic pain
Cannabis, pain, and sleep: Sativex Clinical Trials
Sativex successfully treats neuropathic pain characterised by allodynia: clinical trial
Cannabinoids for neuropathic pain
Neuropathic orofacial pain: Cannabinoids as a therapeutic avenue
Oromucosal delta9-THC/CBD for neuropathic pain associated with multiple sclerosis
The non-psychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an orally effective therapeutic agent in rat chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain
Vanilloid TRPV1 receptor mediates the antihyperalgesic effect of the nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, cannabidiol, in a rat model of acute inflammation
Cannabidiol inhibits paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain through 5-HT1A receptors without diminishing nervous system function or chemotherapy efficacy
Antihyperalgesic effect of a Cannabis sativa extract in a rat model of neuropathic pain
Non-psychoactive cannabinoids modulate the descending pathway of antinociception in anaesthetized rats through several mechanisms of action
Cannabinoids suppress inflammatory and neuropathic pain by targeting α3 glycine receptors
Role of the cannabinoid system in pain control and therapeutic implications for the management of acute and chronic pain episodes
Cannabinoids in the management of difficult to treat pain
Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of THC:CBD extract and THC extract in patients with intractable cancer-related pain
Marijuana extract helps prevent chemo pain
Pot users less likely to take painkillers
CBD & THC interactions on acute pain and locomotor activity
CBD Is a Potential Therapeutic for the Affective-Motivational Dimension of Incision Pain in Rats

Obesity
The impact of marijuana use on glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance among US adults
Cannabinol and cannabidiol exert opposing effects on rat feeding patterns
Cannabis and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) for weight loss?
The endocannabinoid system in obesity and type 2 diabetes
Role of the endocannabinoid system in abdominal obesity and the implications for cardiovascular risk
Cannabinoids and endocannabinoids in metabolic disorders with focus on diabetes
CBD promotes browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

OCD
Plasma and brain pharmacokinetic profile of cannabidiol (CBD), cannabidivarine (CBDV), Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) and cannabigerol (CBG) in rats and mice following oral and intraperitoneal administration and CBD action on obsessive-compulsive behaviour

Osteoporosis/Bone Health
CBD Enhances Fracture Healing and Stimulates Lysyl Hydroxylase Activity in Osteoblasts
Cannabinoid receptors as target for treatment of osteoporosis: A tale of two therapies
Cannabinoids and bone: Friend or foe?
Cannabinoid receptor type 1 protects against age-related osteoporosis by regulating osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation in marrow stromal cells
Cannabinoids and the skeleton: From marijuana to reversal of bone loss
The endovanilloid/endocannabinoid system: A new potential target for osteoporosis therapy
The endovanilloid/endocannabinoid system in human osteoclasts: Possible involvement in bone formation and resorption
Endocannabinoids and the regulation of bone metabolism
Cannabinoid receptors and the regulation of bone mass
Natural products as alternative treatments for metabolic bone disorders and for maintenance of bone health
Peripheral cannabinoid receptor, CB2, regulates bone mass
Regulation of bone mass, bone loss and osteoclast activity by cannabinoid receptors
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids may mutually benefit both obesity and osteoporosis
Skeletal lipidomics: Regulation of bone metabolism by fatty acid amide family

Parkinson’s Disease
Effects of cannabidiol in the treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease: An exploratory double-blind trial 
Prospects for cannabinoid therapies in basal ganglia disorders
Evaluation of the neuroprotective effect of cannabinoids in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease: Importance of antioxidant and cannabinoid receptor-independent properties
Cannabinoids provide neuroprotection against 6-hydroxydopamine toxicity in vivo and in vitro: relevance to Parkinson’s disease
Cannabidiol can improve complex sleep-related behaviours associated with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in Parkinson’s disease patients 
Cannabidiol for the treatment of psychosis in Parkinson’s disease
Symptom-relieving and neuroprotective effects of the phytocannabinoid Δ⁹-THCV in animal models of Parkinson’s disease
Therapeutic potential of cannabinoids in CNS disease
CB2 Receptors Activation Protects against Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation Associated Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration in Rotenone Model of Parkinson’s Disease
Neurological aspects of medical use of CBD

Prion/Mad Cow disease
Nonpsychoactive CBD prevents prion accumulation and protects neurons against prion toxicity
Cannabidiol: A prion therapy for mice?

PTSD
The endocannabinoid system provides an avenue for evidence-based treatment development for PTSD
Reductions in circulating endocannabinoid levels in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder following exposure to the world trade center attacks
Enhancing cannabinoid neurotransmission augments the extinction of conditioned fear
Modulation of Fear Memory by Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids via Cannabinoid Receptors
CBD blocks long-lasting behavioral consequences of predator threat stress: Possible involvement of 5HT1A receptors
Stress switches cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptor-dependent plasticity from LTD to LTP in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis 
Mitigation of post-traumatic stress symptoms by Cannabis resin: A review of the clinical and neurobiological evidence
Cannabinoid modulation of fear extinction brain circuits: A novel target to advance anxiety treatment
The endocannabinoid system and extinction learning
A current overview of cannabinoids and glucocorticoids in facilitating extinction of aversive memories: potential extinction enhancers
Cannabinoids and traumatic stress modulation of contextual fear extinction and GR expression in the amygdala-hippocampal-prefrontal circuit
Non-antidepressant long-term treatment in post-traumatic stress disorder
The anxiolytic effect of cannabidiol on chronically stressed mice depends on hippocampal neurogenesis: Involvement of the endocannabinoid system
The Use of Medicinal Marijuana for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Review
CBD Modulates Fear Memory Formation Through Interactions with Serotonergic Transmission in the Mesolimbic System
Bidirectional Effects of CBD on Contextual Fear Memory Extinction
CBD disrupts the consolidation of specific and generalized fear memories via dorsal hippocampus CB1 and CB2 receptors
Effectiveness of Cannabidiol Oil for Pediatric Anxiety and Insomnia as Part of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Report

Rheumatism
Cannabidiol as an emergent therapeutic strategy for lessening the impact of inflammation on oxidative stress

Schizophrenia
Cannabis Drug Shows Promise in Treating Schizophrenia
CBD as an antipsychotic drug
Cannabidiol as a potential treatment for psychosis
CBD enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia
Medical use of cannabis. CBD: A new light for schizophrenia?
A critical review of the antipsychotic effects of CBD: 30 years of a translational investigation
Peripheral endocannabinoid system dysregulation in first-episode psychosis
Cannabinoids and schizophrenia
Antipsychotic-like effects of cannabidiol and rimonabant
CBD monotherapy for treatment-resistant schizophrenia
Cannabis with high CBD content is associated with fewer psychotic experiences
Marijuana compound treats schizophrenia with few side effects: Clinical trial
Clearing the smoke: what do we know about adolescent cannabis use and schizophrenia?
Neuronal and molecular effects of cannabidiol on the mesolimbic dopamine system: Implications for novel schizophrenia treatments
Improved Social Interaction, Recognition and Working Memory with CBD Treatment in a Prenatal Infection Rat Model.

Sickle Cell Anemia
Pain-related behaviors and neurochemical alterations in mice expressing sickle hemoglobin: Modulation by cannabinoids
Cannabis use in sickle cell disease

Skin Conditions
Cannabinoids inhibit human keratinocyte proliferation through a non-CB1/CB2 mechanism and have a potential therapeutic value in the treatment of psoriasis
CBD exerts sebostatic and antiinflammatory effects on human sebocytes
The endocannabinoid system of the skin in health and disease
Epigenetic control of skin differentiation genes by phytocannabinoids
A novel control of human keratin expression: cannabinoid receptor 1-mediated signaling down-regulates the expression of keratins K6 and K16 in human keratinocytes in vitro and in situ
Endocannabinoids modulate human epidermal keratinocyte proliferation and survival via the sequential engagement of cannabinoid receptor-1 and transient receptor potential vanilloid-1
Cannabinoid 1 receptors in keratinocytes modulate proinflammatory chemokine secretion and attenuate contact allergic inflammation
Attenuation of allergic contact dermatitis through the endocannabinoid system
Topical cannabinoid agonists. An effective new possibility for treating chronic pruritus
The role of cannabinoids in dermatology
Cannabidiol upregulates melanogenesis through CB1 dependent pathway by activating p38 MAPK and p42/44 MAPK

Sleep Disorders
In the United States, approximately 70 million people suffer from insomnia, insufficient sleep or another sleep disorder. CBD has been mistakenly described as sedating. In modest doses, CBD is mildly alerting. Cannabidiol activates the same adenosine receptors as caffeine, a stimulant. But several patients with sleep issues report that ingesting a CBD-rich tincture or extract a few hours before bedtime has a balancing effect that facilitates a good night’s sleep.
The nonpsychoactive Cannabis constituent cannabidiol is a wake-inducing agent
Cannabis, pain, and sleep: Lessons from therapeutic clinical trials of Sativex
Effects of acute systemic administration of CBD on sleep-wake cycle in rats
Effect of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on nocturnal sleep and early-morning behavior in young adults
CBD modulates sleep in rats
Endocannabinoid modulation of cortical up-states and NREM sleep
Intranodose ganglion injections of dronabinol attenuate serotonin-induced apnea in Sprague-Dawley rat
Endocannabinoid Signaling Regulates Sleep Stability
Cannabis, Cannabinoids, and Sleep: a Review of the Literature
Effectiveness of Cannabidiol Oil for Pediatric Anxiety and Insomnia as Part of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Report.

Spinal Cord Injury
CBD-treated rats exhibited higher motor score after cryogenic spinal cord injury

Stress
Endogenous cannabinoid signaling is essential for stress adaptation
Regulation of endocannabinoid signaling by stress: Implications for stress-related affective disorders
Functional interactions between stress and the endocannabinoid system: from synaptic signaling to behavioral output
Neuromodulators, stress and plasticity: a role for endocannabinoid signalling
Downregulation of endocannabinoid signaling in the hippocampus following chronic unpredictable stress
Endocannabinoids and stress
Stress regulates endocannabinoid-CB1 receptor signaling
Chronic Stress Impairs α1-Adrenoceptor-Induced Endocannabinoid-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity in the Dorsal Raphe Nucleus
Endocannabinoid-mediated modulation of stress responses: Physiological and pathophysiological significance
Cannabinoid receptor activation prevents the effects of chronic mild stress on emotional learning and LTP in a rat model of depression
Cannabinoids ameliorate impairments induced by chronic stress to synaptic plasticity and short-term memory
The anxiolytic effect of CBD on chronically stressed mice depends on hippocampal neurogenesis: involvement of the endocannabinoid system
Low-frequency stimulation evokes serotonin release in the nucleus accumbens and induces long-term depression via production of endocannabinoid 

Stroke and TBI
About one million people in the United States are treated in emergency rooms each year for traumatic brain injuries, resulting from traffic accidents, sports-related concussions, military injuries, and strokes. By the year 2030, according to the American Heart Association, almost 4 percent of U.S. adults will have a stroke.
Cannabidiol, a nonpsychoactive Cannabis constituent, protects against myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury
Cannabidiol prevents infarction via the non-CB1 cannabinoid receptor mechanism
Cannabidiol prevents cerebral infarction via a serotonergic 5-hydroxytryptamine1A receptor-dependent mechanism
Cannabidiol administration after hypoxia-ischemia to newborn rats reduces long-term brain injury and restores neurobehavioral function 
Protective Effects of Cannabidiol Against Hippocampal Cell Death and Cognitive Impairment Induced by Bilateral Common Carotid Artery Occlusion in Mice
Repeated treatment with cannabidiol but not Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol has a neuroprotective effect without the development of tolerance
CBD reduces brain damage and improves functional recovery in a neonatal rat model of arterial ischemic stroke

 

 
 
 


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